Fiscal & Monetary Policy and Economic Fluctuation Paper for College Economics Class

ECO 101 help

FISCAL & MONETARY POLICY&ECONOMIC FLUCTUATION

The United States has had a tumultuous period for the last five years in terms of the economic growth. It has moved up and down the graphical ladder. Within the period, both the federal and unitary government has undertaken some projects which have affected the economy of the country in one way on another. It is within the period when the unitary government has managed to roll out some ambitious blueprints which will affect the cash flow of the country in different ways. Notably, the recently passed Bill; the ObamaCare will go a long way in improving the lives and also altering the economic fortunes of many. The swings in the interest rates, inflation rate and employment status have gone a long way in impacting on the economy of the country.

The Economic status of The United States of America has settled in the recent past. This argument is however relative. Tracing the origin of the financial problems from the current financial meltdown of 2008, both national and federal governments have made steps towards economic recovery (United States 2010). These efforts have been both fiscal and monetary measures to ensure balance. The fiscal policies, which has been used for so long have been more effective (United States 2010). The taxes have been increased for the federal states and therefore increasing the inflation rates for the citizens in general. The increase in the inflation rates has increased the standards of living for the people of the United States of America. In 2012, when the United States had the general elections, a lot of money was spent on the campaigns by both Democrats and Republicans (Strawser 2013). The increase in the money supply in the economy increased the amount of dollars in circulation and also increased the velocity of money in the economy. The results of increase in money supply were the slight increase in the rate of inflation, which was followed by an increase in interest rates to stabilize the  economy in terms of the performance.

The interest rates, inflation rates and unemployment status have also changed differently over the years in the recent past. The national elections and the passage  of congressional bills, ObamaCare and decisions to spend on military in Arab countries has led to increase in expenditure by the National Government. The increase in the expenditure by the government has led to increase in the supply of money in the US economy (Strawser 2013). The increase in supply has led to a corresponding increase in the rate of inflation, therefore reducing activities by the manufacturing companies. The reduced level of productive activity has in turn led to the reduced activity in the employment scene. A few companies made their employment policies flexible enough to accommodate job seeking  citizens at that time (United States 2010). Therefore, the employment rate reduced and in some cases, workers were laid off. However, the employment rate has risen in the recent past consistently showing improvement of the economy after the recovery of the meltdown.

The government sometimes applies strategies to spur economic growth, albeit not directly. The strategies are under the umbrella of fiscal  and monetary policies. Fiscal policies alter the tax rates with a sole aim to improve economic growth. Monetary policies, on the other hand alter the amount of money in circulation in the economy at any given time with an aim of improving the economic growth of a country (Strawser 2013). During recession and depression when the rate of inflation is skyrocketing  and the supply of money in the economy is high, the government increases interest rates charged by the Federal  Reserve to discourage citizens from borrowing money and hence reduce the circulation of money in the economy and therefore increase economic growth. Secondly, when the rates of employments are low and most citizens are not employed in government projects, the government spends a lot of the National Reserve to invest in infrastructural milestones to create employment for the people working in such investments. The investments, though do not result to direct economic growth, but the facilitate economic growth. This way, the economy stabilizes.

The above named strategies have an effect on the macro economic status of a country. In most cases, the application of one strategy  leads to the solution of one problem, but it also creates another problem.  This is called ripple effect. As such an increase in investments in government projects leads to a corresponding increase in the money supply in the economy. The increase in money supply leads to an increase  in the inflation rates (Strawser 2013). An increase in the inflation rate due to increase in money supply triggers the government to increase the rates of borrowing, the interest rate to reduce the amount of money held by individuals to try to curb the situation.  Increase in interest rates reduces the level of investment hence leading to the reduced employment vigor. This reduces the employment rate.

In summary, the Macro economic status of the United States has had different turns and twists in the recent past. The different measures and policies which has been taken by the government to curb the situation has also had a taste of the economic fluctuations.

 

 

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References

Bernan Press. (2012). Vital statistics of the United States: Births, life expectancy, deaths, and          selected health data. Lanham, Md: Bernan Press.

Strawser, C. J. (2013). Business statistics of the United States: Patterns of economic change.          Lanham, MD: Bernan Press.

United States. (2010). Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2012. Washington, DC: For      sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.

Calculus Problem Solved

Substitution, advanced, graphical solution & determinable method for the following problem (The below is all ONE problem not separate equations):

3x-4y+2z=-2

2x+y+3z=13

x-3y+2z=-3

 

Substitution method

3x-4y+2z=-2  (1)

2x+y+3z=13   (2)

x-3y+2z=-3   (3)

First, let’s re-arrange equation (3) such that only 1 variable is on the left hand side

x = -3 +3y -2z    (3)

Now let’s substitute this x to equations (1).

3(-3+3y-2z)     -4y       +2z      =-2     (1)

-9+9y-6z          -4y       +2z      =-2

5y        -4z       =-2+9

5y        -4z       =7        (4)

Similarly, substitute x to equations (2).

2(-3+3y-2z)     +y        +3z      =13      (2)

-6+6y-4z          +y        +3z      =13

7y        -z         =13+6

7y        -z         =19      (5)

Now let’s re-arrange equation (5) so that only 1 variable is on the left hand side.

z = 7y − 19    (6)

Next, substitute this value of z to equation (4).

5y-4(7y-19)=7             (4)

5y-28y+76=7

-23y=7-76

-23y=-69

y=-69/-23

y=3

Now that we have found y, we can substitute this to equation (6) to find z.

z=7*3-19         (6)

z=21-19

z=2

Finally, we can substitute the value of y and z to equation (3) to get the value of x.

x = -3 +3*3 -2*2   (3)

x=-3+9-4

x=2

Hence, we have found the solution to the system of linear equations: x = 2, y = 3, z = 2.

 

 

Elimination method

As the name suggest, this method tries to eliminate variables until there’s only 1 variable left.

We can subtract the two equations to eliminate z and we get equation (4).

3x        -4y       +2z      =-2       –(1)

x          -3y       +2z      =-3       –(3)

——————————           (-)

2x        -y                     =1        (4)

Note that equation (4) consists of variables x and y. Now we need another equation that has the same variables as equation (4). To get this we’ll eliminate z from equation (1) and (2). In equation (1) and (2) the coefficients of z are 2 and 3 respectively. In order to eliminate z, we multiply equation (1) by 3, multiply equation (2) by 2 and then subtract equation (2) from equation (1).

3x-4y+2z=-2          (1)*3                      9x-12y+6z=-6        (1)

2x+y+3z=13          (2)*2                      4x+2y+6z=26        (2)

———–  (2)-(1)

-5x+14y=32           (5)

 

With equations (4) and (5), let’s try to eliminate y.

2x-y=1             (4)*14              28x-14y=14     (4)

-5x+14y=32    (5)                    -5x+14y=32    (5)

————-        (4)+(5)

23x=14+32

23x=46

x=46/23

x=2             (6)

From equation (6) we get x = 2. Now we can substitute this value of x to equation (4) to get the value for y.

2*2-y=1           (4)

4-y=1

-y=1-4

-y=-3

y=3

Finally, we can substitute the value of z to equation (1) to get z.

3*2-4*3+2z=-2      (1)

6-12+2z=-2

-6+2z=-2

2z=-2+6

2z=4

z=4/2

z=2

Hence the solution to the system of linear equations is x = 2, y = 3, z = 2.

 

Graphical method

For system of linear equations with three variables, the solution is the point of intersection of the three planes that represent each equation.

 

Determinant Method or Cramer’s rule

Matrix

x y z b
1 3 -4 2 -2
2 2 1 3 13
3 1 -3 2 -3

Write down the main matrix and find its determinant

x y z
1 3 -4 2
2 2 1 3
3 1 -3 2

D = 23

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Replace the 1st column of the main matrix with the solution vector and find its determinant

x y z3
1 -2 -4 2
2 13 1 3
3 -3 -3 2

D1 = 46

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Replace the 2nd column of the main matrix with the solution vector and find its determinant

x y z
1 3 -2 2
2 2 13 3
3 1 -3 2

D2 = 69

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Replace the 3rd column of the main matrix with the solution vector and find its determinant

x y z
1 3 -4 -2
2 2 1 13
3 1 -3 -3

D3 = 46

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

x x= D1 / D = 46 / 23 = 2

y= D2 / D = 69 / 23 = 3

z = D3 / D = 46 / 23 = 2

Hence the solution to the system of linear equations is x = 2, y = 3, z = 2.

 

Business Homework Help | Managerial Leadership Paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP PAPER

In the current world, there are contemporary and trending issues which affect our society in varied ways. Some, actually, are unlocked mysteries which are not easy to crack. Scientists might conduct research and of course come up with their findings. Religious leaders might also come up with their versions of explanations to tackle different issues. Different groups might lack a general view of a situation. To this end, the contemporary issues can be expressed by writers in different forms such as themes in their books or beliefs in their expressions. The same thoughts might be shared by a number of writers who might express the same thoughts from different dimensions. In the book, Outliers, different propositions have been floated across. Different beliefs have been discussed and analyzed, and different principles have been expressed.

From a general perspective  the author’s purpose for the book is to tackle the issues which have long been left in the dungeon for lack of a conclusive explanation. He tries to bring another dimension and another approach for the reasonings which have stayed with mankind for a long time.  Most people have assumed  some situations leads to different results without looking at other underlying factors which also affect different results. Look at the case of death rates in America compared to the death rate of Rosetans, you realize that most people have always associated death rates with health related lifestyles and dietal issues. No one thinks of death in terms of societal set up and organizational upbringing. The author brings another twist to the story; a twist which is rejected by many and accepted by few. In other words, the author would like to express the other side of the story in the whole issue of the ancient reasoning and de facto beliefs haboured in different instances.

In a more specific perspective, the author wishes to express the thoughts of the little known and the most neglected aspects of life in terms of the common beliefs. He opens up the whole thinking of the readers to have a wider perspective and more engaged view of the general view of the connotations which are cherished.

One of the major themes discussed by this author is the role played by opportunity and practice. Taking the case of Bill Gates. He was exposed to computers at an early age since he got the opportunity to learn in a school with such facilities. At such a young age, he is introduced to the functionality of the computer. Opportunity coupled with interest, therefore drives him to start something new in regards to the computer. The results of such curiosity, which can be classified under practice, therefore leads him to a mega  discovery of something which would remain under his name for a considerably long time. Evidently, the opportunity he got of getting exposed to the computers in the early 1960s when the machines were rare to come by in  common institutions and the agility he developed which lead him to try and make something new made him who he is today. That is a perfect example of how opportunity and practice can shape someone at the expense of another.

Secondly, a theme which has been looked at keenly is revolving around being a genius. It is emerging that being a genius is not a guarantee for outright success. Normally, the society assumes that those who are born with light brains are normally susceptible to success more than those who are not geniuses. This reasoning has however been dragged so far to an extend that the ones presumed to be failures find pleasure in challenging the other people. Naturally, when one is presumed to be a genius, they tend to think success await them. This theme has been looked into in this book extensively, but in bringing the other dimension of it. Take an example of Chris, he was a genius, but failed to graduate from college because of other exogenous factors are key to ones academic success. Being a genius is not a guarantee of success. In other words, it is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. In section  five of the book, a test to attest this proposition is lined where people who were once geniuses are brought together and it is realized that not all of them are at the same point in monetary terms. That shows that the some professionals might be fleecing the geniuses with little return to compensate for their wide brain capacity. It is therefore true, that being a genius is one thing, being successful is another.

On the same note, one of the themes which has been extensively looked at in this piece of writing is the fact that the world does not have equal opportunity for all.  When one is born, they do not choose the family from which they will grow and the background from which they will hail. Nature does the choosing. When nature is involved, there are underlying factors to that effect. First and foremost, nature will not be fair in its choices, some people will be thrown into areas infested with poverty, others will also be thrown direct to the wealth of the family. This act, will give different footing to the starting point in life. In a simple dimension, one  person will have money to invest while the other will start from looking for the initial capital. This difference provided by nature eventually dictates the success and the path taken by the two different people in life. Life, is never fair, on anyone, and therefore that explains a great deal in the destiny of the people.

Family background is a major determinant of one’s success. The background of a family in terms of the wealth owned is probably the theme which has been looked into in all the chapters of the book.  It is probably the major determinant of once success save for some special cases in different instances. In a general view, when one is born to a rich family, the children will grow learning different ways and the little known about creating and sustaining wealth. This is not the same case of those born into financial malnourished families. The latter will tend to be satisfied with the condition and even though some might be worried to out of the cocoon, the external hurdles might be so glaring. The former, however, have most solutions to their needs at finger tips. They are not worried much of their destiny, but are worried about how to retain their family wealth. They are taught how to coexist with authorities and how to have hands in crucial  decisions to work for them. They are taught how to negotiate and how to always get a deal towards their end. All these are not learnt in schools or institutions, they are taught in homes, families. Therefore, it is imperative that family background has a direct influence in the destiny of anyone as far as success is concerned. The theme is well enumerated by the predicaments of Chris Langan and Robert Oppenheimer, both were geniuses, but had a different footing because of family background.

The principles expressed by Gladwell are glaring. He believes that Intelligence Quotient, which translated into one being a genius is not the best predictor of success. It is misleading in that it does not work for some people as it works for others. In addition, it depends on other exogenous factors such as family background to deliver credible results as far as success is concerned.

Secondly, the author casts doubt to the general proposition that one can do what they desire and achieve whichever  heights they might long to attain. The story of the genius, Chris Langan, contradicts this view,  he wanted to attain heights in education and had the full brain capacity to achieve this. He was, however, shut down by what others would describe as ‘bad luck’. That ‘bad luck’ is the factor behind the principle which is coming out clearly in this writing that  we cannot become what we desire because of other exogenous related factors.

As another principle, shown by the author. There is a positive relation between effort and reward. This is in line with life’s beliefs that those who work hard in their endeavors are tipped for success than those who find pleasure in little pressure. The book, however, brings another dimension to the reasoning of this notion. Chris works hard to attain his ambitions of being successful, but this is not the case as his efforts are thwarted by his mother’s  ignorance and the deans arrogance. The two factors bring him a new twist on life espousing him to the sufferings and guilt of unaccomplished ambitions.

As a principle of belief, background is also a factor towards one’s success. As was said, referring to background as a major theme in the book, the background also comes out strongly as a principle which determines ones future. It determines one’s exposure to any information which are  core in the whole process of wealth accumulation and subsequently success in life. Poor background does not offer much apart from frustrations to ambitions. The Chris case sums it all an makes the whole principle of background so lively.

The above discussed book by Gladwell on Success blends well with the Principles of Leadership by Andrew DuBrin. In a way, they both talk about the akin hypothesis, but in different dimensions. In reality,  it is evident that the two books in a way talk about the same principles but from different angels.

Gladwell refers to Bill Gates as one who is successful owing to the opportunity he received which others never received; that is the opportunity to get exposed to computers early enough. The opportunity gave him the chance to think outside the box, ponder and eventually invent something big which would follow his track thereafter.  Andrew’s Principles of leadership, however, brings a different dimension to it. He postulates that success requires great leadership ability to nurture ambition and get results. This leadership prowess portrayed is key to the success of any venture including life goals. A good leader must therefore be nurtured creativity, but restricts the ambitions within the bounds of integrity. The same case applies with other qualities of a good leader.

To achieve, family background influences once destiny; that is the argument put forward by Gladwell in his book. However, The Principle’s of Leadership brings a whole new dimension to this, it insists that with the good family background, still the person must be able to work and integrate the efforts of others to ensure full success in the end.  A person might not be able to achieve a lot in isolation, the efforts of others must be brought together. When the efforts are brought together, the act of leadership comes in. The people must be organized and harmonized into workable cells and units. The process involves leadership integration and practices to uphold the trust and achieve results.

The leadership behavior exhibited by the proprietor is a strong indication of whether or not the venture will succeed. Bringing different factions together and inputs together for a common goal requires a transformational person whose leadership abilities are beyond reproach. It requires one who is entrepreneurial in nature; an act which Andrew describes as a person who constantly sees new opportunities where others fail to see opportunities. The Bill Gates story as told by Gladwell is well in the context that it requires someone who grows an extra eye to the available opportunity. He had the opportunity to be in the same class as others fitted with computers. Unlike others, he developed an extra initiative to the available computers to think ahead of others. So even, without the availability of opportunity, it still requires the extra step taken ahead of others to come up with the adorable initiative which people would not imagine to have lived without. This trait of an inspired leader is referred to as the entrepreneurial aspect of a leader.

Gladwell stresses the fact that one’s destiny is well spelt in the family  background from which they hail. He argues, that with a deeply rooted family background, there is a presumed advantage of success compared to others. Andrew, however, brings another perspective of the argument. He argues that even with a solid financial foundation, one needs compliments to make a success story. Complainants in this case are the qualities which that person should have to cushion their success from eminent failure. The compliments in this case are the good qualities of  a leader. The qualities include; utmost humility which will positively influence the worker relations with each other. The relations among the workers is directly associated with the success or failure of initiatives. A good leader who is keen on the bigger picture therefore is keen to hold the workers together through mutual and workable relationships.  A good leader, must also be able to be vigilantly self confident, assertive and enthusiastic in the venture being carried out.

Leadership is inclusive and success is not exclusive either. The two are incorporated together to produce results. The two are in harmony to realize success.

Taken From AceMyHW.com

 

 

Biology 101 Assignment

Component Function How it does this Activating factor
White Blood Cells            ( leukocytes) White blood cells are round, large cells which have no nuclei and contain no haemoglobin. These cells circulate in our blood stream and attacking the invading bacteria, parasite and any other cell and objects which are not meant to be floating inside out blood.

 

Lymphocytes are the white cells which are operatives to immune system. Lymphocytes travel through the blood in search of foreign cells. B cells use antibodies to target the bacteria and T cells fight with the bacteria. When bacteria enter inside our body, then lymphocyte releases the antibodies which will destroy the bacteria and viruses which causes infections in the body. The body recognize the chemical structures made by bacteria and quite different from chemical by higher organisms. When a bacterium enters our body and our body detects the special chemical structures of these bacteria, then it activates several processes like increased movement of blood cells to the place where invader has entered the body increased phagocytosis and activates the enzyme in the blood and destroys them.
Antibodies                        (Immunoglobulin)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Each antibody has a unique structure which allows it to bind to the specific antigen. All antibodies usually have ‘Y’ shaped structure.  These are the special proteins with special shapes and binds to the foreign substances like bacteria, viruses which surrounds them so that scavenger cells can destroy them and flush them out of the body. When circulating antibodies in the blood comes in contact with the target then antibodies bind to the target. Depending upon the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process as a result of which foreign substances gets destroyed. When some bacteria or virus enter our body and is recognized by the white blood cells, then white blood cells releases an antibody which respond to specific bacteria, toxins or viruses. These antibodies bind to the toxins and disable their chemical actions that an invader needs to be removed.
Bone marrow Bone marrow is a highly cellular structure present in the hollow cavities of the hard bone tissue.  Main function of this organ is the formation and development of blood cells. Bone marrow produces different cells which make up the blood. RBC’s are produced by a process called haematopoiesis. The hematopoietic component of bone marrow produces 1500 billion cells per day. All cells like rbc are formed in the red bone marrow. Stem cells in the red bone marrow give rise to all formed elements in blood. Stem cells can be developed into a new red blood cell. The stem cells can be changed to specific type of cells as needed. Our body has feedback system which tells when to make what type of cells. If in a body oxygen levels are low or in case of severe blood loss, kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin which stimulates the stem cells in the marrow to produce more red blood cells.
Hormones Hormones are those substances which coordinate the activities of specific cells in certain areas of the body. Hormones regulate several functions like assuring the growth occurs properly, ensuring the maturation and development occurs properly and on time and make sure that reproduction occurs at the best possible time. Hormones are the molecules which are produced by endocrine cells which convey special information to the target cells. When hormone reaches the target cell, it binds to the receptor to initiate a response and causes a biological response within a cell. In response to the signal from the brain, hormones are secreted directly into the blood by the glands which produce them and store them.
Spleen Spleen is an important organ which filters out the old red blood cells to create antibodies. It also acts as a reservoir of special type of white blood cells called monocytes. Monocytes stored in spleen are transferred to the injury site and get transformed into dendrictic cells which help in healing the wounds. Spleen also store platelets which help in blood coagulation and clotting. When there is an injury, then spleen works with the blood and transfers the monocytes which help in clotting and coagulation and also act as a drainage system to fight against infection. It gets activated automatically. Red blood cells have a lifespan of 120 days after which spleen beaks them down and recycled to manufacture new blood cells.